How to Care for a High Carbon Knife

Here is an insert I include with all of the knives I make.

This custom hand-crafted knife (might say hand forged) is made from 1080 high carbon steel. It has scales made from stabilized  beech which is pinned with brass pins. It has a Hand rubbed oil finish.

The Hand Stitched Leather Sheath was crafted from approximate 8 oz veggie tanned leather.

How to Care for a High Carbon Knife / Maintenance of a High Carbon Knife

A high carbon knife is preferred if you want a knife with the sharpened edge and a knife that’s easy to get back to sharp.

But high carbon steel can be prone to rust, especially when new, so her are the recommendations for maintenance of a high carbon knife.


First, keep it clean and dry. When you’re using it, wipe it down with a dry cloth or paper towel from time to time.

When you’ve finished, wash it with soap and warm water. Dry it well and store it as you normally do.

Every so often oil it.

If it’s a kitchen knife, start once a week, but as it builds a greyish color, that timeframe can be reduced. After a year or so once every months or 6 weeks should be fine. You can use almost any kind of cooking oil. Vegetable oil, or purchase some of the specialty oils sold for just this purpose.

If it’s a hunting knife, oil it with 3 in one oil or gun oil. Your knife can be maintained exactly like your firearms.

For camp and utility knives you can also oil like the hunting knives, but possibly a bit more frequently.

If you have a wood handled knife from me, it will be finished with an oil finish. I like the easier maintenance of an oil finish and I like the patina built from the oils in your hands (the same oils that will rust the blade by the way).

You can simply wipe on a new coat of oil. Wipe it on and wipe it off, let it dry, and repeat if you’d like. Tru-oil, Tung oil, walnut oil or anything similar will work equally well. I do not recommend Boiled Linseed Oil for kitchen knives but can be used for knives not directly in contact with food.

Wax, (like Johnson’s wax, Renaissance wax, or similar) works well for both the handle and blade as well. Wipe it on and buff it.

Knife 54 Hunter EDC from a file – Blade Filing

This knife was made from a file with Blade Filings added

This knife was made from a file with Blade Filings added. This knife’s design is not what was intended. I had a failed attempt to cut Fuller’s in it. I was using a cutoff wheel with a straight edge guide. The guide slipped. So, tyo make something out of nothing, I narrowed it to save the blade. The spline filing was added to dress it up.

  • Blade – 5 ¼”
  • Overall – 10”
  • Steel – an old file
  • Handle – stabilized beech

The filings on this blade were made for decoration, no other purpose. In some instances you will see “saw teethe” on the spline. This is meant to be an added tool in a survival situation, but most of them do not work very well. I suspect in most cases they are added for the “cool” factor more than being a real advantage in a real survival situation.

There is nothing wrong with recovering from a failed attempt. I tend to learn by doing, and sometimes making a mistake forces you to learn new ways you’d not otherwise thought of.

The stabilized beach on this handle was a piece with extraordinary figure. It wasn’t wide enough for anything other than this type of handle. This wouldn’t be considered one of the best style handles, but it’s small, and compact. For a utility type knife this will wind up serving someone very well and has a unique enough look to be somewhat appealing.

Also see jimping on

Knife 50 5 ½” Hunter – What About Knife Handles

Knife 50 5 ½” Hunter – What About Knife Handles & Scales

  • Steel –  1/8” 1095
  • Blade 5 1/2”
  • Overall – 10 7/8”
  • Scales – Desert Ironwood
  • Handle finish – wax
  • Drop Point design

Desert Ironwood  is a hard dense wood with a great grain figure. It doesn’t take well to stabilizing because of it. It is dense enough that it makes a great knife handle as it is.

Knife Handles & Scales

Knife Handles & Scales come in a variety of materials. Natural Wood, Stabilized Wood, Carbon Fiber, Unique Resins, Composites, Micarta, G-10, Bone, metals, horn, antlers, and and some I’m sure I’ve missed or do not even know about. Most you can find by searching this site for the knife handle type.

To me a classic looking knife, a truly exquisite knife, one you just want to carry on your next adventure, will always have a wood handle. Wood is the traditional substance for a beautiful knife handle, and unless you plan to be in the most extreme survival conditions, for lengths of time almost humanly unbearable, a wood handle will always perform wonderfully. And nothing really can compare to wood for adding beauty to your knife, but a basic note about wood scales or handles. If you are using wood for your Knife Handles & Scales that are not stabilized, you should make sure the wood is dry. (See stabilizing wood ) Store your blanks in a dry place to get them dry and keep them dry. The typical recommendation is your wood be between 6-8% moisture content. For Knife Handles & Scales, lower is better. This will work well, especially if you are just making knives for yourself. The real issue is as a knife crosses to other climates, it will lose or take on moisture depending on the climate. The good thing is knife handles and scales are typically small, so the movement is minimal. If reasonable precautions are taken to ensure the wood is dry, they should work without issue. Using stabilized wood for Knife Handles & Scales made from wood that is more susceptible to movement is recommended.

Doing a google search can sometime get you answers on the stability of the wood you want to use. If in doubt, I suggest using stabilized wood. There are good dense wood that if dry, will not need stabilization like rosewood, ironwood and similar.

Many knife makers prefer something less susceptible to moisture, especially for kitchen knives. For this Micarta, G10 and other synthetic materials work well. The advantages of Micarta are, it’s pretty well impervious to weather and moisture, most oils and solvents, and is EXTREMELY durable and tough. Since it’s made up of thin layers, the more angles and cuts you make in the material, the more the “grain” shows.

The primary difference between G10 and micarta is in the materials used in construction. G10 is made from layers of continuously woven fiberglass, impregnated with epoxy. Micarta is also laminated, but uses materials such as linen, burlap or canvas. Most people consider G10 to be easier to grip than micarta when the knife handle is dry, while micarta is usually considered to offer a better grip while wet.

Knife 40 – Fully Forged Hunter

Knife 40 – Fully Forged Hunting knife

This is the first knife I’m going to call forged. I’ll admit it took me longer due to inexperienced, but not as long as I expected. This is an example of one of the benefits of knowing how to forge a knife along with stock removal. This piece of 1080 would not have been big enough to do what I wanted to do using just stock removal. There was plenty of metal, it just needed to be drawn out and shaped.

I started with 1/8” 1080 steel when making “Knife 40 – Fully Forged Hunting knife”. You will want to use a cross peen or rounding hammer. The flat side is for smoothing, the round or peening side is for moving and forming the metal.

First, I started with the blade. I heated and hammered the blade into the shape I wanted. I started with the bottom curve then alternated between that and the drop point, all the time keeping the knife flat.

I made sure the shape was exactly what I wanted, then moved to defining and drawing out the tang. Again, making sure the knife stayed flat. To define the beginning of the tang I used a combination of the cross peen and the edge of the anvil, using the hammer face to keep it flat as I went.

Once the tang was developed, I started on the bevel. Using the hammer face at a slight angle, I drew out the bevel working from one end to the other on each side. It was actually easier than I anticipated as long as I took my time.

Before stopping I paid extra attention to making sure it was as flat as I could make it and the form was as I expected it to be

I then let it cool and moved to the belt grinder. (I’d you don’t have a belt grinder yet, use what you have, a belt sander, angle grinder, etc.

Using the belt I formed the tang further and evened up the shape. At this point I was using a 36-grit ceramic belt. I decided to try to free hand the bevel, so I added my plunge stop. Slowing the belt down substantially and maintaining a horizontal move. It’s here I discovered it was often best to let the knife slide behind my thumb that was pressing the knife to the belt. Dunking in water served to purposes at this point, it kept the knife cool so I could hold on it and it helped lubricate the knife, so it slides behind my thumb. This allowed me to keep a more even pressure on the bevel. Keeping the belt speed slow enough so the knife doesn’t overheat in a single pass helps a great deal. It’s not a concern for the overheat for the metal, it’s maintaining a temperature you can hang onto.

From here I jumped to 120 grit. In retrospect I should have gone to 80 first. I then moved to hand filing and sanding. There were a few spots I found while hand working that had deep enough scratches that I moved back to the belt to take them out, then back to hand work.

I then made sure the tang had a slight taper from the beginning to the tip. This would allow the finger guard to slide on.

Once this was completed, I moved to making the finger guard. I cut a piece of ¼” x 1” steel. I marked the slot and drilled a series of holes the appropriate size for the tang. I used the mill to finish the cut, but a file or Dremel would have worked as well. I rounded the guard on the belt grinder.

I marked out and cut a piece of aluminum that will be the frame. I cut serrations in it about every ¼” all the way around. This gets cleaned up and roughed up with 80 grit sandpaper to slow the epoxy to stick better.

I then cut out two rosewood scales square and slightly oversized and epoxied black spacers to them. I clamped them together with wax paper between them for easy separation.

That was the end of the day. I would estimate I had about 5 hours in this knife at this point.

See the other Hidden Tang Knives

Finishing the knife happened in small time slots over the next few days. I basically made the frame the same as I did for Knife 34 – Hidden Tang Aluminum Framed on page 47.

With this frame I cut the slots all the way around the frame. I then epoxied the handle together with epoxy tinted black and let the epoxy cure. I then drilled a series of 1/8” holes for the brass pins and epoxied the pins in place. These are for both esthetics and strength holding the frame together.

At this point I heat treated the knife and after it cooled, I started the tempering process. While this was in process, I roughed out the scales.

And here is the mistake. I realized at this point I did not normalize the knife before I heat treated it. I didn’t want to risk anything going wrong with this knife after the work I’d out into it, so back to the forge.

Normalizing Your Knife

  • When a knife is forged it needs to be normalized. Forging adds stress to the steel. If you research this, you will find it has to do with the grain structure of the steel. But for now, just know it needs to be done.
  • Normalizing is a pretty simple process. Heat the metal to nonmagnetic then let it air cool. For most metals we’ll talk about in this book, doing this three times should do the trick. After annealing you can go straight to heat treatment.
  • Typically normalizing is not required with stock removal but I recommend you normalize recycled steel. If in doubt, normalize.

I normalized the knife  three times. Each time bringing the knife to non magnetic and then letting it air cool. I then heat treated it once again and tempered it with the normal two hours at 450 degrees with two cycles.

I debated at this point if I should go further on the handle or wait and get it all together. I decided it would be best (since the finger guard would be flush to the handle) if it was all formed to final shape together.

I decided to add some spacers and epoxy the handle on. Since the clamp was positioned so I could drill for the tang pins, I went ahead and drilled and installed them as well. I then let it cure overnight.

Knife 32 – Mini Cleaver

Knife 32 – Mini Cleaver is a small chopper or mini cleaver.

  • Made from 3/32” 1095 steel
  • Laminated Rosewood and maple scales with G10 spacers
  • Blade is 4”
  • Overall length is 8 ¾”

This mini cleaver or herb chopper was a trial and error kind of learning exercise.

The tang was a little too narrow, but I figured that would be acceptable for a herb chopper. As it turned out I was right

This was made from a left-over piece of 1095. The shape of the piece of steel inspired the knife. I also wanted to try grinding after heat treating before I did it on a full-size cleaver like Knife 30 – Cleaver and Knife 35 – Serbian Cleaver

I discovered with a good ceramic belt, and submerging in the water bucket every stroke, it didn’t take long at all. I keep the belt running about half speed. This worked out well and grinding after helps eliminate a potential for warping during heat treatment.

Knife 32 – Mini Cleaver

The other lesson learned on this knife has to do with carefully choosing the scales. There are some blemishes in the scales I didn’t notice before I put them on. It won’t hurt the performance of the knife, but if I wanted to sell the knife, it would be a harder sell and would definitely warrant a price reduction.

I now inspect the scales much more closely. Other than the minor imperfect in the scales, it came out well. The knife turned out to be an exceptional kitchen knife.

Because of the small blemish on the bottom of the handle, I thought about removing the handle and starting over, but it’s unnoticeable enough that I decided to offer it as it. I obviously had to point it out clearly in the description and priced it accordingly so someone got a great knife at a great price.

See more on this style of grinding on Knife 30 – Cleaver

Knife 10 – Riggers Knife / Sheep’s Foot

Knife 10 – Riggers Knife / Sheep’s Foot

The Knife 10 – Riggers Knife / Sheep’s Foot is traditionally a sailor’s knife. The sheep’s foot blade allows a rope to be cut on the deck without skinned knuckles and the sheep’s foot stopped a sailor from stabbing another (or himself I suppose) in rough seas and on board an unstable surface .

This knife is also is made from 1/8” 1080 high carbon. The scales are wenge.

This knife is similar to Knife 8 – Riggers Knife / Sheep’s Point

Grinding this style knife is a good knife to make. Be sure to use a stop for the plunge line. That can either be a stop and grind the bevel by hand or with a grinding jig.

I used the grinding jig on both sheep’s point blades. The first one was a bit more challenging. Getting the plunge line takes a bit of practice. Go slow and be patient. Focus on the start point and the angle. Focus on the pressure. Going from left to right and then right to left takes concentration. We tend to work differently with our right and left hand, so concentrate on keeping the form consistent.

Knife 10 - Riggers Knife / Sheep’s Foot Handle
Scales with liners, drilled and ready to profile the front edge

See Adding the Knife handle — Option 1 for the process of adding the scales.

Knife 10 - Riggers Knife / Sheep’s Foot
Knife 10 - Riggers Knife / Sheep’s Foot

See Grinding a Custom Made Knife for how to grind the bevels.

Bladesmithing – My Starter Tools, Jigs and Supplies

Bladesmithing – My Starter Tools, Jigs and Supplies

post any questions or comments on the forum

One of the questions I’m sure you’ll ask is what kind of tools do you need. I’ll tell what I use, and possible substitutes as well. A lot of the equipment is the same as you will will find in other types of metal and wood work, so a lot of it I had at hand. You may to. If not, I will tell you my opinion on what is a must have to start and a nice to have as you go.

A few basic metal working tools and supplies would be hack saw, an assortment of files, wood rasp are handy for handle forming, a scribe at (which can be made). Don’t forget clamps. I use quick grips, Pony spring clamps and C clamps for most of my knife making.

You’ll want to pick up some sand paper and sanding belts. The kind will depend obviously. Flat sheets from 60 to 2000 will be used. Belts for whatever belt sander or grinder you plan to use. If you’re only going to made one or two knives, I suppose it’s possible to do every thing by hand sanding, but I really don’t believe it’s realistic.

For forging I just use a cross peen hammer I bought at tractor supply. I sanded the finish off the handle for a better grip, did a quick polish on the face. This is for general forging. Any type of hammer will work for the stock removal method. Just something to tap pins in and out and similar task.

If you plan to forge you will need something for an anvil. A real anvil is the obvious best choice, but not a requirement starting out. Almost any heavy flat piece of iron will work.

I mentioned a vise in part 1 as well. Every shop will benefit from a good vise. Most shops wind up with multiple vises. You probably won’t need one at first, but you’ll want to keep it on the list. Eventually you’ll want one, and once you have one you’ll wonder how you lived without it.

Mallet. – Make yourself a wooden mallet. It will come in handy and in some cases, a metal hammer is not the best tool for the job.

Pliers. You’ll want a pair of pliers and/or vise grips. I think we can assume if your reading this you’ll have these, if not get some.

After I built my belt grinder, I built the follow jig for creating the edge bevel on a knife. In a lot of YouTube videos a lot of the bladesmiths like grinding the bevel by hand. This just didn’t work for me. If you can start right out of the gate doing a nice job by hand, then do it. If not, build yourself a similar jig. I couldn’t find one online i liked as it was shown. Some were to an extreme I didn’t need nor did i have the metal working skill to make. Some I just didn’t like for multiple reasons. I made this and I haven’t seen one exactly like it, although there may be. It works well for me.

It’s worth noting that a belt sander or angle grinder could be used in place of the belt grinder or even the belt sander mentioned in Part 1. It will take a bit more patience and a steadier hand, but it is completely doable.

I also found that finding the center line speeds up the grind. It allows you to grind almost to the line on each side, which eliminates the alternating from side to side. I made this one in a few hours with some scrap metal. It should be pretty self explanatory, but feel free to shot me an email or post the question on the forum.

Metal Cutting

I also have a metal cutting bandsaw. I have had this a long time, so it comes in handy. However, I don’t believe it’s something you need day one. A hacksaw, or a cut off wheel in a grinder, or jewelers saws, etc. can all be used instead.

Drill press – I think a drill press should be considered a must have. I’m sure you “could” get by with a hand drill. Even a small benchtop drill press would be a great addition beyond a hand drill. Drilling the handle material with a hand drill is not bad, but drilling the handles would be much better and easier (along with safer) with a drill press.

I mentioned the forge in Part 1, and as stated, it’s not really a requirement unless you want to heat treat, and you don’t want to sink the funds into a heat treat oven.

My Propane forge build is here

Other forge links

Heat Treating. – I will do a post about my journey into heat treating in another post, but I wanted to do my own, so I’m still learning and will be for a long time.

Square. – You will want some kind of square. What kind really doesn’t matter much to start with.

Dremel tool. – A Dremel tool is by no means a must have to start. It will come in handy when and if you have one. For those that go on rust hunting journeys, they can often be found at flea markets and second hand shops.

A Dremel tool is by no means a must have to start. It will come in handy when and if you have one. For those that go on rust hunting journeys, they can often be found at flea markets and second hand shops.

Drill bits. – Drill bits are an obvious must have if you plan to pin your handles. To start, you’ll just need the size or sizes of the pins you plan to use.

If you will be making your knives with hidden tangs, you may need to expand the sizes a little.

Taps. – I use tap and dies a lot in Tool making, but for this, you’ll only need them if you plan to use screw to hold your handles on.

Leather working tools. – I’ll cover this more in a separate post, but if you’re going to make leather sheaths, you need to think about leather tools.

Saw. – I use a bandsaw to rough out the handle scales. A coping saw would work just fine. I image you could find creative ways to use almost any kind of saw for your first knife or two, but I’d recommend at least a coping saw to get you going.

Epoxy. – You’ll need epoxy for setting the scales. I’ve tried both the 5 minute epoxies and the slower set epoxies. The shower set is stronger, so it’s what I typically use. I’ve also found the 5 minute stuff can rush me from time to time. I’ll go into more detail in my handle making post, but I am currently using WEST SYSTEM 650-8 G/Flex.

Sharpening. – You’ll need to figure out how you’ll sharpen your knives. There is an endless number of jigs and processes and techniques. If you have nothing today, you can start with sandpaper on pieces of metal. Oil stones, water stone, diamond stones and systems like this all work well.

Scales. – Hard wood scales are probably the easiest for most to have on hand. They work well, look fantastic, and are easy to work with. As of this writing, it’s all I’ve used. The modern composites are worth looking into however and look for a post as I drive into that pool.

Finish. – If you’re going to use wood scales, you’ll need a finish. I recommend tru-oil. It’s traditionally for gunstocks, but I have used it for everything from gunstocks, to hand planes, to knives. It will serve you well. I also like a good hand rubbed BLO finish, but then almost any oil based finish should be fine. I’m typically a “use what’s on hand” kind of builder, and this is no exception.

Layout Blue. – Layout blue is handy to have. Probably not what I would call a must have, but it is something to keep in mind as you want your layout to become more precise. Here is what I use.

A way to make a makers mark. I didn’t mark my first few blacksmithing and bladesmithing projects, and I kick myself for it, especially the ones I gave as gifts. It doesn’t have to be elaborate. Think about it.

My Makers Mark



Lets make a knife – Stock Removal Style

Lets make a knife = Stock Removal Style.

So, remember. I’m on a learning streak. I found I did a little more grinding free hand on this knife, so practice is sure helping. Here is a piece of 1080.

First I marked out the knife I wanted. As I said earlier, I’m still working on a somewhat easy design.
I cut the piece to length. I used my bandsaw, but a
hacksaw or cutoff wheel in a grinder will do fine.
Now I cut the profile on the cutting edge only. You’ll see why shortly.
Next, I hit the edge cut on the grinder to get it consistent. Next time I’ll clean this up better. It makes sharpening easier later on.

Then I coated the edge with layout blue
Using the marking gauge I marked the center line. I discovered the lines should have been closer together. From now on I’ll shoot for a single line dead center.
And into the jig. Leaving the back flat gives me a solid reference for the jig. Not an absolute requirement, but I think it helps.
I grind one side at a time, up close to the line, but leaving a little bit in the center. You don’t want sharp yet.
Then I laid out the backside profile again.
I laid out the holes I wanted. I want them centered and evenly spaced
I use a center punch so I drill doesn’t wonder
And since I’m here, I’ll add my touch mark
Then, using a bit I recently sharpened, I’ll drill the holes
A few added holes to lighten the knife, help the epoxy grab, and even the balance.
Off to the grinder. You’ll want to flatten. I’ve found holding the knife flat on the grinder works best. Working side to side is difficult to get flat.
And a magnet makes a great handle
Ready for heat treat
Then temper.
A little hand work and clean up after the tempering. Then off to adding the handle.

My Knife Gallery

Knives for sale



The Oldest American Blacksmith in 1901

The Oldest American Black smith. 

Reprint from “The American Blacksmith” 1901 

 In response to the request made by The American Blacksmith for the name of the oldest blacksmith in America, a large number of names of aged and very interesting smiths was received. The result was surely most astonishing, for in the brief space during which the offer remained open we have been sent the names of three smiths over ninety years of age, twenty two over eighty, and a baker’s fifty more than seventy years of age, all still working at the anvil. This showing is a most gratifying one, as it seems to say most unmistakably that the grand old craft in its individual members is hale, hearty and healthful as of old. Answers came from every part of the country, so that we believe we have obtained the name of the oldest smith in America. The honor of being America’s oldest blacksmith belongs therefore to Mr. Samuel Brock, of Falmouth, Grant County, Kentucky, ninety-four years of age, whose photograph is reproduced on this page for the benefit of our readers. The name was sent in by Mr. W. D. Lemmon, of Falmouth, Kentucky. The following taken from the Williamstown (Ky.), Courier is of interest :

“S. Brock has been putting on horse shoes for seventy-six years. He will be ninety-five years old on the 26th day of October next. He was born in Virginia, October 26th, 1807, and migrated to Kentucky, August 26th, 1840. Mr. Brock has been married three times, and has raised a family of sixteen children, eight of whom are dead. He is a Democrat in politics. His father died at the extreme old age of 113 years, and his mother died at almost as great an age, 106. Mr. Brock is a blacksmith by trade, and is yet able, as he says, to put a shoe on a mule. He lives seventeen miles from town and rides or drives to town alone.He is a conspicuous figure in Grant County history on account of his extreme old age.”


Mr. Joe Bragg Turner, of Warsaw, N. Y., and Mr. Hyatt of Lake Charles, Iowa, are each ninety-two years old, but not knowing the months of birth, we are unable to say which is older. In addition to

a few notes regarding these two smiths, we show a most interesting photograph of Joe Bragg, well bearing out the description of the old gentleman. Following the mention of these two smiths are given brief details of all we have heard from, who have journeyed along life’s pathway for more than three-quarters of a century.


 Joe (Bragg) Turner was born in 1810, being now ninety-two years of age. At an early age he was bound out to a blacksmith to learn the trade, which in those days meant a seven-years apprenticeship. His aptitude for the business made him a good workman, and for seventy years he has worked at his

trade, sixty-five of which have been in the county of Wyoming, and forty in the village of Warsaw. He is better known in this section as “Joe Bragg,” than by his legitimate cognomen, from the fact that he is always bragging of his work, and claims that he is the best steel worker in the county, if not in

Western New York. He is to-day as agile as a man of sixty, and per forms his daily duties regularly. He claims to be the oldest working blacksmith in the State, and up to this time his claim has not been disputed. The photograph is by Salisbury, and we are indebted to Richards and Sullivan of Warsaw, N. Y., for the details.


“Mr. Hyatt was in town Monday. He has resigned his position as black smith for the Industrial Lumber Company. Mr. Hyatt is ninety-two years old and his occupation, that of black smith, is an indication of his physical condition, says the Vinton Herald. He does not use glasses even to read, and

is certainly the strongest and brightest specimen of manhood nearing the century mark with whom the Vinton folks have ever come in contact.” 

Thomas Downs, Patesville, Ky., born June 16th, 1814, is almost eighty-eight years old. He still works at his trade and runs a grist mill two days each week. The mill is one and one-half miles from his residence. He has lived in the same place fifty-eight years, and is prominent in church matters. 

William Tubbs, 271 Washington Street, Norwich, Conn., aged eighty-five, was born in Lisbon, Conn., September 10th, 1816. He has been sixty nine years at the trade and is still working at the anvil. His specialty is iron work for large buildings, and a cushioned axle hand freight truck of his own patent. His name was received from E. A. Spaulding, one of the forty who learned their trade from him. 

W. H. Richards, Monongahela, Pa., eight-five years old, was born October 8th, 1816, and is still working at his trade and is very active for his age. Walter Stickney, Meriden, Conn., will be eighty-five years old on the 16th of November, 1902. He has worked at blacksmithing for years, and is actively working at the forge and anvil to this day.

John Staley was born at Millbrook, on May 10th, 1817. At the age of fifteen he went to Blairstown as an apprentice in the shop of Robert Bonnell, coming to Stillwater township six years later, in which township he still resides, and has worked at the anvil continuously ever since. He has never been sick, nor has he worn glasses at any time. His early life being spent where the log schoolhouse seemed tO be all that was required, and obliged to support himself at an early age, his education was therefore necessarily limited, in consequence of which the memory became more acute, and his work to be put on account was therefore stored in memory for days at a time, or until some kind friends would do the charging, and it was a rare thing when the smallest of items was forgotten.

Albert Avery, Hartwick, Otsego Co., N. Y., eighty-four years old, is still working at his trade of shoeing horses. He commenced at the age of nineteen and has always lived at Hartwick. 

Daniel Gorman, Lima, Ohio, eighty four years of age, was born in Ireland, coming to this country in 1859. He is always at his place in the blacksmith shop of the Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Railway Company, and has not lost thirty days time on account of ill health in the past ten years, all told. Mr. Gorman may not be the oldest man in the craft now in active service, but is getting along in years. 

Daniel Bid well, Cute, Tenn., born September 5th, 1818, is eighty-three years of age. He went through the Civil War, going to the front with his company, and doing blacksmithing in the army at times when there was no fighting going on.

John S. Edwards, Leeds, Greene County, N. Y., eighty-two years old, is still working in his shop and doing a good business. 

Nathan Moseley, Limestone, Tenn., born at Huntsville, Ala., May 7th, 1821, is eighty-two years old and still works at the anvil to this day. 

Frank Miller, Potosi, Mo., eighty one years old, works at the forge every day.

Stephen H. Abies, Esperence, N. Y., eighty years old, is working every day at his trade. 

L. D. Krum, Krums Corners, N. Y., is eighty years old and has run a shop at one place for fifty-three years. He started at the age of nineteen. Mr. Krum has in his shop a foot power trip hammer, which has always been quite a curiosity, and many a student of Cornell has stopped to see the old gentle man work with his feet, as well as with his hands. Now for fifty-seven years his hammer and anvil have rung out their work notes every morning, but his work with them will soon be over.

S. D. Bolander, Allentown, Ohio, is eighty years of age. Thomas Davey, 23rd and Callowhill Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., is eighty years old and still working hard at the anvil.

G. W. M. Drake, Monticello, Minn., is eighty years old, and one of the best blacksmiths in the State of Minnesota.

H. W. Dodge, Stromness, Ontario, Canada, eighty years old, can shoe horses as well as he could Twenty years ago.

James E. Marcum, Troy, Kansas, is eighty years old. He works at his trade every day at most all kinds of work, and has ever since the first part of 1836. He was born April 10, 1822, and was in the mexican War, fifty-five years ago. Still an active smith.

John S. Baichtal, Sac City, Iowa, was born July 18th, 1822, and is seventy nine years old. Charles Johnson, West Point, Pa., seventy-nine years of age, is working at horseshoeing at the present time.

Robert McKell, Spanish Fork, Utah, seventy-nine years of age, still works at the blacksmith trade.

John Brocht, Mastersonville, Pa., seventy-eight years old, is still working at the forge.

William Crater, Glen Gardner, N. J., was born February 9th, 1824, is seventy eight years old.

James Kane of Oshkosh, Wis., seventy-eight years old, whose portrait is given above, is a blacksmith with a record of sixty-three years continuous service at the anvil. He was born in Inniskerry, Ireland, February 14th, 1824. At the age of fifteen he began work with the village smithy, serving seven years as an apprentice, and four as a journeyman. His work was horseshoeing and general blacksmithing. After eleven years in his native town, he removed to Boston, Mass., and then to Oshkosh in 1856. Here he established himself to remain, and for forty-six years has worked at his chosen trade. endowed with a strong constitution and temperate in his habits, his sterling integrity and native honesty has made him comfortably wealthy and won for him good friends. Still he continues to work at his anvil, and attributes his excellent health at the age of seventy to hard work and plenty of sleep. While his earlier working years were confined to horseshoeing, at which he is a master, and which still forms the greater part of his business, his work of late years has been somewhat diversified, and general repairing is carried on. Mr. Kane says to-day that he feels good for ten years more of active work.

William Higgins, Salisbury Mills, N. Y., seventy-eight years old, has worked in one place forty-five years. Isaac Schohe, Mastersonville, Pa., seventy-eight years of age, is still working at the forge. 

Lawrence M. Vanbuskirk, Grimsby, Ontario, Canada, seventy-eight years old, still works at the forge in the shop where he has worked forty years. 

Adam Barboe, Burnt Prairie, 111., is seventy-seven years old. Stephen Miller, Wallbridge, Ontario, Canada, seventy-six years old, has worked at the trade for sixty years.

Melchior Smith, Reading, Pa., seventy-six years old, is employed by the Greth Machine Works in Reading.

W. W. Bryant, Petersburg, 111., was born on March 4th, 1827. 

Charles Waugh, Hillsdale, Ontario, Canada, is seventy-five years old. 

“My name is Tobias Zophee. I was born in City Spwander, Court DeGlaris, Switzerland, May 17th, 1827. Began my trade at thirteen years old, and struck for my father when I had to stand on a box to reach the anvil. I came to Courtland, Ala., in 1869. I worked at my trade for General Joseph Wheeler in 1870. I am five feet, six inches high, and weigh one hundred and forty-three pounds. l am seventy five years old, and have not a gray hair in my head. I am active, work at my trade every day, and* can do any work that any other blacksmith can. I am the father of fourteen children, am now a widower and in search of a handsome rich widow. If The Blacksmith would aid me in finding this one desire of my heart you would very greatLy oblige. Tobias Zophee.”